Please atharva veda pdf in kannada this error screen to 172. Veda” and “Vedic” redirect here. The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism.
Despite their differences, just like the texts of the śramaṇa traditions, the layers of texts in the Vedas discuss similar ideas and concepts. The term in some contexts, such as hymn 10. Marai literally means “hidden, a secret, mystery”. Michael Witzel gives a time span of c. 14th century BC the only epigraphic record of Indo-Aryan contemporary to the Rigvedic period. Witzel suggests the possibility of written Vedic texts towards the end of 1st millennium BCE.
Some scholars such as Jack Goody state that “the Vedas are not the product of an oral society”, basing this view by comparing inconsistencies in the transmitted versions of literature from various oral societies such as the Greek, Serbia and other cultures, then noting that the Vedic literature is too consistent and vast to have been composed and transmitted orally across generations, without being written down. However, adds Goody, the Vedic texts likely involved both a written and oral tradition, calling it a “parallel products of a literate society”. This is the oldest layer of Vedic texts, apart from the Rigvedic hymns, which were probably essentially complete by 1200 BC, dating to c. 12th to 10th centuries BC. 72,000 occur in the four Samhitas. Each of the Brahmanas is associated with one of the Samhitas or its recensions. The Brahmanas may either form separate texts or can be partly integrated into the text of the Samhitas.
They may also include the Aranyakas and Upanishads. The texts contain discussions and interpretations of ceremonies, from ritualistic to symbolic meta-ritualistic points of view. It is frequently read in secondary literature. Together, the Vedas and these Sutras form part of the Vedic Sanskrit corpus. While production of Brahmanas and Aranyakas ceased with the end of the Vedic period, additional Upanishads were composed after the end of the Vedic period. In other parts, they show evolution of ideas, such as from actual sacrifice to symbolic sacrifice, and of spirituality in the Upanishads.
Nevertheless, it is advisable to stick to the division adopted by Max Müller because it follows the Indian tradition, conveys the historical sequence fairly accurately, and underlies the current editions, translations, and monographs on Vedic literature. They are the foundation of Hindu philosophical thought and its diverse traditions. Of the Vedic corpus, they alone are widely known, and the central ideas of the Upanishads are at the spiritual core of Hindus. Each school likely represented an ancient community of a particular area, or kingdom. Each school followed its own canon. Multiple recensions are known for each of the Vedas.
Some of these texts have survived, most lost or yet to be found. The Vedic canon in its entirety consists of texts from all the various Vedic schools taken together. Each of the four Vedas were shared by the numerous schools, but revised, interpolated and adapted locally, in and after the Vedic period, giving rise to various recensions of the text. Some texts were revised into the modern era, raising significant debate on parts of the text which are believed to have been corrupted at a later date.
Prodigious energy was expended by ancient Indian culture in ensuring that these texts were transmitted from generation to generation with inordinate fidelity. The texts were subsequently “proof-read” by comparing the different recited versions. The Vedas were likely written down for the first time around 500 BC. However, all printed editions of the Vedas that survive in the modern times are likely the version existing in about the 16th century AD.