Cd johnson process control instrumentation technology pdf

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This article is about the material. A jar made of soda-lime glass. Although transparent in thin sections, the glass is greenish-blue in thick sections from impurities. Bubbles remained trapped in the glass as it cooled from a liquid, through the glass transition, becoming a non-crystalline solid. Although brittle, silicate glass is extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures.

Some objects historically were so commonly made of silicate glass that they are simply called by the name of the material, such as drinking glasses and eyeglasses. Normally, other substances are added to simplify processing. Most common glass contains other ingredients to change its properties. Fused quartz is used for high-temperature applications such as furnace tubes, lighting tubes, melting crucibles, etc. It is used for windows, some low-temperature incandescent light bulbs, and tableware. This makes it less susceptible to water erosion. Stands heat expansion much better than window glass.

7740 Pyrex CTE is 3. They are commonly used for reagent bottles, optical components and household cookware. It also has a high elasticity, making glassware “ring”. It is also more workable in the factory, but cannot stand heating very well. Aluminosilicate glasses are also resistant to weathering and water erosion. The recycled glass saves on raw materials and energy.

Impurities in the cullet can lead to product and equipment failure. Glass is in widespread use largely due to the production of glass compositions that are transparent to visible light. Glass does not contain the internal subdivisions associated with grain boundaries in polycrystals and hence does not scatter light in the same manner as a polycrystalline material. These properties, which give glass its clearness, can be retained even if glass is partially light-absorbing—i. In the process of manufacture, silicate glass can be poured, formed, extruded and molded into forms ranging from flat sheets to highly intricate shapes.