Chemicals in medicines pdf

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The industry is fragmented and extends from small, privately owned companies to divisions of big, diversified chemical enterprises. The term “fine chemicals” is used in distinction to “heavy chemicals”, which are produced and handled in large lots and are often in a crude state. Since their inception in the late 1970s, fine chemicals have become an important part of the chemical industry. 40 among in-house production by the main consumers, the life science industry, on the one hand, and the fine chemicals in medicines pdf industry on the other hand.

The products are mainly used as building blocks for proprietary products. The hardware of the top tier fine chemical companies has become almost identical. The design, lay-out and equipment of the plants and laboratories has become practically the same all over the world. Most chemical reactions performed go back to the days of the dyestuff industry. Numerous regulations determine the way labs and plants have to be operated, thereby contributing to the uniformity.

Switzerland, which already had supplied an early intermediate, methyl acetoacetate, during drug development, soon became the main supplier of more and more advanced precursors. The signature of a first, simple supply contract is generally acknowledged as the historical document marking the beginning of the fine chemical industry. H2 receptor antagonist, marketed as Zantac by Glaxo. Other pharmaceutical and agrochemical companies gradually followed suit and also started outsourcing the procurement of fine chemicals. For many years, however, the life science industry continued considering captive production of the active ingredients of their drugs and agrochemicals as a core competency.

In the production of modern life science products, total synthesis from petrochemicals prevails. The HMW products, respectively large molecules, are obtained mainly through biotechnology processes. HMWs they are the peptides and proteins. As aromatic compounds have been exhausted to a large extent as building blocks for life science products, N-heterocyclic structures prevail nowadays. In synthetic life science products, N-heterocyclic moieties are widely diffuses both pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. HMW molecules, are mostly oligomers or polymers of small molecules or chains of amino acids.

The threshold between the two is as at about 50 amino acids. Because of their unique biological functions, a significant and growing part of new drug discovery and development is focused on this class of biomolecules. Their biological functions are determined by the exact arrangement or sequence of different amino acids in their makeup. However, only a small part of the total amino acid production is used for peptide synthesis. About 50 peptide drugs are commercialized.