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The hippocampus is a curled structure within the medial aspect of the temporal lobe, lying in the floor of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. From foundational science to new and novel research, discover our large collection of Physical Sciences and Engineering publications, covering a range of disciplines, from the theoretical to the applied. Explore our wide selection of Life Sciences journal articles and book chapters featuring original research, insightful analysis, current theory and more. Keep up to date with health and medical developments to stimulate research and improve patient care. Search our books and journals covering education, reference information, decision support and more.

Discover our large collection of Social Sciences and Humanities journals and books, highlighting historical context, current developments, theories, applications, trends and more. Articles published in our open access journals are peer-reviewed and made free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by the authors’ choice of user license. In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology. The history of chemistry spans a period from very old times to the present.

Since several millennia BC, civilizations were using technologies that would eventually form the basis of the various branches of chemistry. It was unsuccessful in explaining the nature of matter and its transformations, but, by performing experiments and recording the results, alchemists set the stage for modern chemistry. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία. The basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. The number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines.