Gods demons and others pdf free download

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Examples of representations of deities in different cultures. Religions can be categorized by how many deities they worship. However, there is no universally accepted consensus concept of deities across religions and cultures, and the concept of gods demons and others pdf free download deity has been envisioned in diverse ways.

Huw Owen states that the term “deity or god or its equivalent in other languages” has a bewildering range of meanings and significance. Historically, various cultures have conceptualized a deity differently than a monotheistic God. A deity need not be almighty, omnipresent, omniscient, omnibenevolent or eternal. In other cases, the deity is an inner principle or reality such as the idea of “soul”. Some engravings or sketches show animals, hunters or rituals.

Europe and dated to about 25,000 BCE has been interpreted as an exemplar of a prehistoric divine feminine. A Yoruba deity from Nigeria. The diverse African cultures developed sophisticated theology and concepts of deities over their history. Ogun is the primordial masculine deity as well as the archdivinity and guardian of the trades such as tools making and use, metal working, hunting, warriors, protector, equity and justice. Osun is an equally powerful primordial feminine deity and a multidimensional guardian of fertility, water, maternal, health, social relations, love and peace.

Ogun and Osun deity traditions were brought into North and South America with slave ships. They were preserved by the African people in their plantation communities, and their festivals continue to be observed in the modern era. The Sun and Moon are viewed as manifestations of the supreme deity, and worship is timed and directed to them. In other African cultures, in contrast, the Sun is seen as male, while the Moon is female, both symbolism for the godhead. Egyptian records and inscriptions list the names of many whose nature is unknown, but they also make vague indirect references to other unnamed deities. Christian Leitz estimates there are “thousands upon thousands” of Egyptian deities.

Egyptian deities typically had a cult, role and mythologies associated with them. Among the numerous deities, around 200 are prominent in the Pyramid texts and ancient temples of Egypt, many zoomorphic. Most Egyptian deities represented natural phenomenon, physical objects or social aspects of life, as hidden immanent forces within these phenomena. Major gods often had many roles and were involved in multiple phenomena. The first written evidence of deities in Egypt are from early 3rd millennium BCE, but these likely emerged from prehistoric Egyptian beliefs.

Over time, through the early centuries of the common era, as Egyptians interacted and traded with neighboring cultures, foreign deities were adopted and venerated. Greek deity of the sea. The ancient Greek civilization had numerous deities, both gods and goddesses, as part of its religious beliefs and mythologies. These continued to be revered through the early centuries of the common era, and many of the Greek deities inspired and were adopted as part of much larger pantheon of Roman deities. The Greek religion was polytheistic, but had no centralized church, nor did it have any sacred texts. The deities were largely associated with myths, and they represented powers of natural phenomenon or aspects of human behavior.

The Greek deities likely trace back to more ancient Indo-European traditions, since the gods and goddesses found in distant cultures are mythologically comparable and are also linguistically cognates. Greek deities varied with its city states and islands, but in most part the pantheon of gods and goddesses of the ancient Greek culture shared panhellenic themes, as well as celebrated similar festivals, rites and ritual grammar associated with them. Aphrodite, Apollo, Ares, Artemis, Athena, Demeter, Hephaestus, Hera, Hermes, Hestia, Poseidon and Zeus. Other important Greek deities included Dionysus, Hades and Heracles.

The gods of Greek mythology, like many Indo-European traditions, were anthropomorphic. Their iconography, states Burkert, is as “persons, not abstractions, ideas or concepts”. Greek deities led to cults, were used politically, and they inspired votive rituals for favors such as bountiful crops, healthy family, victory in war, or peace for a loved one who just died. Offerings include round bread and maize beer. Incan culture, one who existed before he created space and time. All other deities of the Inca people have corresponded to elements of nature.

Inca people have revered many male and female deities. Christian God and teachings over their original beliefs and practices. Christian God, but the Andean rituals centered around Incan deities have been retained and continued thereafter into the modern era by the Incan people. However, states Timothy Insoll, the Aztec ideas of deity remain poorly understood.