Cuneiform is from the Latin hand lettering alphabet pdf “wedge-shaped” and was impressed on wet clay with a sharpened reed. 22 letters around the eleventh century BC. The Greeks eventually adapted the Phoenician alphabet around the eighth century BC. One Hebrew script was only used for religious literature and by a small community of Samaritans up until the sixth century BC.
Aramaic around the third century AD. Like the Greeks, the Romans employed stone, metal, clay, and papyrus as writing surfaces. Square capitals were employed for more-formal texts based on stone inscriptional letters, while rustic capitals freer, compressed, and efficient. Greeks in the third century BC, but became popular in Latin manuscripts by the fourth century AD. Roman cursive or informal handwriting started out as a derivative of the capital letters, though the tendency to write quickly and efficiently made the letters less precise. Other combinations of half-uncial and cursive handwriting developed throughout Europe, including Visigothic, and Merovingian.
Charlemagne to create this new handwriting, which he did in collaboration with other scribes and based on the tradition of other Roman handwriting. Carolingian minuscule was used to produce many of the manuscripts from monasteries until the eleventh century and most lower-case letters of today’s European scripts derive from it. This script was not as clear as the Carolingian, but instead was narrower, darker, and denser. This was a combination of Roman capitals and the rounded version of Carolingian minuscule.
A cursive form eventually developed, and it became increasingly slanted due to the quickness with which it could be written. Other manuals were produced by Dutch and French writing masters later in the century, including Pierre Hamon. However, copybooks only became commonplace in England with the invention of copperplate engraving. Engraving could better produce the flourishes in handwritten script, which helped penmanship masters to produce beautiful examples for students. By the eighteenth century, schools were established to teach penmanship techniques from master penmen, especially in England and the United States. Penmanship became part of the curriculum in American schools by the early 1900s, rather than just reserved for specialty schools teaching adults penmanship as a professional skill.
Zaner-Bloser, and D’Nealian methods among others used in American education. Other writing surfaces used during this time included bronze, stone, jade, pottery, and clay, which became more popular after the twelfth century BC. 1100 BC and 700 BC and appeared mainly in bronze vessels. Chinese script, which is more stylized than the Greater Seal.