Knowledge in philosophy pdf

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However, several definitions of knowledge and theories to explain it exist. Without this idea of a “theory of knowledge,” it is hard to imagine what “philosophy” could have knowledge in philosophy pdf in the age of modern science.

He believes it, but it isn’t so,” but not “He knows it, but it isn’t so. He goes on to argue that these do not correspond to distinct mental states, but rather to distinct ways of talking about conviction. What is different here is not the mental state of the speaker, but the activity in which they are engaged. Wittgenstein sought to bypass the difficulty of definition by looking to the way “knowledge” is used in natural languages. Following this idea, “knowledge” has been reconstructed as a cluster concept that points out relevant features but that is not adequately captured by any definition. Other forms of communication include observation and imitation, verbal exchange, and audio and video recordings.

Thamus, the Egyptian king and Theuth the inventor of the written word. Technopoly, Vintage, New York, p. King Thamus is skeptical of this new invention and rejects it as a tool of recollection rather than retained knowledge. Classical early modern theories of knowledge, especially those advancing the influential empiricism of the philosopher John Locke, were based implicitly or explicitly on a model of the mind which likened ideas to words. This analogy between language and thought laid the foundation for a graphic conception of knowledge in which the mind was treated as a table, a container of content, that had to be stocked with facts reduced to letters, numbers or symbols. This created a situation in which the spatial alignment of words on the page carried great cognitive weight, so much so that educators paid very close attention to the visual structure of information on the page and in notebooks.

Media theorists like Andrew Robinson emphasise that the visual depiction of knowledge in the modern world was often seen as being ‘truer’ than oral knowledge. This plays into a longstanding analytic notion in the Western intellectual tradition in which verbal communication is generally thought to lend itself to the spread of falsehoods as much as written communication. Gossip and rumors are examples prevalent in both media. As to the value of writing, the extent of human knowledge is now so great, and the people interested in a piece of knowledge so separated in time and space, that writing is considered central to capturing and sharing it. It is only recently that audio and video technology for recording knowledge have become available and the use of these still requires replay equipment and electricity. Verbal teaching and handing down of knowledge is limited to those who would have contact with the transmitter or someone who could interpret written work.

Writing is still the most available and most universal of all forms of recording and transmitting knowledge. It stands unchallenged as mankind’s primary technology of knowledge transfer down through the ages and to all cultures and languages of the world. Situated knowledge is knowledge specific to a particular situation. This is the “gaze that mythically inscribes all the marked bodies, that makes the unmarked category claim the power to see and not be seen, to represent while escaping representation. This is what Haraway terms a “god trick”, or the aforementioned representation while escaping representation. Situational knowledge is often embedded in language, culture, or traditions.