Literature review on tuberculosis pdf

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This is a good article. Follow the link for more information. Infection in both lungs is marked by white arrow-heads, and the formation literature review on tuberculosis pdf a cavity is marked by black arrows.

Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms. TB in their lungs cough, spit, speak, or sneeze. People with latent TB do not spread the disease. Those at high risk include household, workplace, and social contacts of people with active TB. One-third of the world’s population is thought to be infected with TB. In 2016, there were more than 10 million cases of active TB which resulted in 1. This makes it the number one cause of death from an infectious disease.

India, China, Indonesia, Pakistan and the Philippines. The number of new cases each year has decreased since 2000. United States population tests positive by the tuberculin test. Multiple variants may be present simultaneously. Extrapulmonary TB occurs when tuberculosis develops outside of the lungs, although extrapulmonary TB may coexist with pulmonary TB. Tuberculosis may become a chronic illness and cause extensive scarring in the upper lobes of the lungs. The upper lung lobes are more frequently affected by tuberculosis than the lower ones.

The reason for this difference is not clear. These are collectively denoted as “extrapulmonary tuberculosis”. An ulcer originating from nearby infected lymph nodes may occur and is painless, slowly enlarging and has an appearance of “wash leather”. 16 to 20 hours, which is an extremely slow rate compared with other bacteria, which usually divide in less than an hour.

A number of factors make people more susceptible to TB infections. TB are infected by the virus. HIV develop the active disease. Chronic lung disease is another significant risk factor. Other disease states can also increase the risk of developing tuberculosis. Public health campaigns in the 1920s tried to halt the spread of TB. A single sneeze can release up to 40,000 droplets.

TB and putting them on anti-TB drug regimens. If someone does become infected, it typically takes three to four weeks before the newly infected person becomes infectious enough to transmit the disease to others. During this process, the bacterium is enveloped by the macrophage and stored temporarily in a membrane-bound vesicle called a phagosome. The phagosome then combines with a lysosome to create a phagolysosome. Tuberculosis of the lungs may also occur via infection from the blood stream.

This hematogenous transmission can also spread infection to more distant sites, such as peripheral lymph nodes, the kidneys, the brain, and the bones. When other macrophages attack the infected macrophage, they fuse together to form a giant multinucleated cell in the alveolar lumen. The granuloma may prevent dissemination of the mycobacteria and provide a local environment for interaction of cells of the immune system. However, more recent evidence suggests that the bacteria use the granulomas to avoid destruction by the host’s immune system. Bacteria inside the granuloma can become dormant, resulting in latent infection. If TB bacteria gain entry to the blood stream from an area of damaged tissue, they can spread throughout the body and set up many foci of infection, all appearing as tiny, white tubercles in the tissues. This severe form of TB disease, most common in young children and those with HIV, is called miliary tuberculosis.