In addition to the observation of behavior, learning also occurs through the observation of rewards and observational learning theory pdf, a process known as vicarious reinforcement. 1941, which posited that personality consisted of learned habits. His theories moved away from the strictly behaviorist learning of the past, and considered instead the holistic interaction between the individual and the environment.
In his theory, the social environment and individual personality created probabilities of behavior, and the reinforcement of these behaviors led to learning. He emphasized the subjective nature of the responses and effectiveness of reinforcement types. While his theory used vocabulary common to that of behaviorism, the focus on internal functioning and traits differentiated his theories, and can be seen as a precursor to more cognitive approaches to learning. He theorized that “human beings are somehow specially designed to” understand and acquire language, ascribing a definite but unknown cognitive mechanism to it.
Specifically, Bandura argued that “the weaknesses of learning approaches that discount the influence of social variables are nowhere more clearly revealed than in their treatment of the acquisition of novel responses. Skinner’s explanation of the acquisition of new responses relied on the process of successive approximation, which required multiple trials, reinforcement for components of behavior, and gradual change. Rotter’s theory proposed that the likelihood of a behavior occurring was a function of the subjective expectancy and value of the reinforcement. Social learning theory integrated behavioral and cognitive theories of learning in order to provide a comprehensive model that could account for the wide range of learning experiences that occur in the real world. Thus, learning can occur without an observable change in behavior. Reinforcement plays a role in learning but is not entirely responsible for learning. The learner is not a passive recipient of information.
Bandura opens up the scope of learning mechanisms by introducing observation as a possibility. These models, cognitively mediated, allow future consequences to have as much of an impact as actual consequences would in a typical S-R theory. This notion states that just as an individual’s behavior is influenced by the environment, the environment is also influenced by the individual’s behavior. In other words, a person’s behavior, environment, and personal qualities all reciprocally influence each other. For example, a child who plays violent video games will likely influence their peers to play as well, which then encourages the child to play more often.
This could lead to the child becoming desensitized to violence, which in turn will likely affect the child’s real life behaviors. Social learning theory draws heavily on the concept of modeling as described above. Stimuli can be either real or fictional characters. The cognitive processes underlying retention are described by Bandura as visual and verbal, where verbal descriptions of models are used in more complex scenarios. By reproduction, Bandura refers not to the propagation of the model but the implementation of it. This can require the input of others to provide self-correcting feedback. Bandura’s description of motivation is also fundamentally based on environmental and thus social factors, since motivational factors are driven by the functional value of different behaviors in a given environment.