Peter atkins physical chemistry pdf

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In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology. The history of chemistry spans a period from very old times to the present. Since several millennia BC, civilizations were using technologies that would eventually form the basis of the various branches of chemistry. It was unsuccessful in explaining the nature of matter and its transformations, but, by performing experiments and recording the results, alchemists set the stage peter atkins physical chemistry pdf modern chemistry.

In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία. The basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. The number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines.

The atom is the basic unit of chemistry. In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons. 1,836 times that of an electron, yet the radius of an atom is about 10,000 times that of its nucleus. The properties of a compound bear little similarity to those of its elements.