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Preparing America’s students for success. Please forward this error screen to 194. This study investigated teacher behaviors, lesson primary language curriculum pdf and sequence of content and learning expectations used by K-5 teachers at one school in New Delhi, India. This research brings broader understanding of strategies for teaching English reading and writing to students whose first language is not English.

The rationale for the study stems from the need to gain greater international perspective of the teaching of English learners. Results reflect analysis of classroom observation field notes, face-to-face interviews with thirty three teachers and administrators, digital photo journaling, and artifacts. The theoretical framework for this study draws from Collier’s Conceptual Model, Acquiring a Second Language, explaining the complex interacting factors students experience when acquiring a second language, and the work of Dorothy Strickland outlining effective literacy instruction. Emerging from the data are nine effective teaching strategies that teachers of English learners can add to their repertoire. English has become the medium of all relevant social interactions and the ability to use English effectively is considered an absolute essential for honorable existence. Many teachers in the United States are faced with the challenge of teaching children to read and write in English when the students have a heritage language that is not English and they are not yet proficient in English. Title I Communiqué Special Report that reviewed the current research related to quality literacy instruction for English learners, concludes that classroom teachers urgently need to know more about effective strategies for teaching English learners.

As part of the effort to learn more about quality instruction for English learners, educational researchers and teachers in the United States have looked at instructional practices in other countries. Research and close observation of the teaching of reading has been conducted in Australia and New Zealand, and a smaller amount of study in England for the obvious reason that English is the language of instruction. Literacy instruction in India has not received the same attention, perhaps because English is not the first language of the majority. There is however, very little literature that reveals current methods and practice in Indian primary classrooms for the teaching of reading to children whose first language is not English.

Interest and curiosity about reading instruction in India leading to this research came about as a result of observation and conversation with two graduate assistants working in a university department of Language Literacy and Culture. These very capable and well-educated young men, after graduating from college in New Delhi, came to a southern California university for master’s degrees in Computer Science. They both told of starting kindergarten knowing almost no English, and immediately began to learn to read and write in English. While this experience was limited to observation and interviews with only two people, it stimulated a need to know if their experiences were similar to others, particularly, when it has become noticeable that young people graduating from Indian universities are being recruited to work in the United States. This is most apparent in the field of technology. Even though obtaining a US visa has become increasingly difficult, Indians still receive nearly 45 percent of visas each year.

United States is not alone in experiencing major changes in the linguistic and cultural diversity of its student body. Indeed, many nations of the industrialized world are facing similar issues and hold similar beliefs related to learning a second language. Additionally, we need to go beyond merely describing programs or the start up of programs and instead examine the instructional strategies used by teachers as they help students to acquire a second language with ease and fluency. Toward this goal, this study looked closely at teacher behaviors, lesson delivery and sequence of content, and learning expectations used by teachers of classes K-5 at one school in New Delhi, India.

The focus of this work was to build a broader understanding of strategies for teaching English reading and writing to students whose first language is not English. In this study, questions were constructed to reveal not only the instructional practices but also to learn teachers’ beliefs and gain insight into which principles guided their decision making. What are teacher beliefs about and guiding principles for teaching English language learners? How is assessment conducted and used?

The theoretical framework adopted for this study draws from two areas. The model has four major components: sociocultural, linguistic, academic, and cognitive processes. It is crucial that educators provide a socioculturally supportive school environment that allows natural language, academic, and cognitive development to flourish. That growth is developmental is a central precept of the model. The research site was a primary level school, kindergarten through level V, with approximately 1500 students, located in New Delhi, India. 2 scheme of education or what in the United States would be called a K-12 school. The school is affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education, meaning middle school students and high school students must take and score well on the exam to be able to continue on to university.