She rebecca solnit a field guide to getting lost pdf the youngest daughter of Sigmund Freud and Martha Bernays. She grew up in “comfortable bourgeois circumstances. Anna Freud appears to have had a comparatively unhappy childhood, in which she “never made a close or pleasurable relationship with her mother, and was instead nurtured by their Catholic nurse Josephine.
She was a lively child with a reputation for mischief. 1899: “Anna has become downright beautiful through naughtiness. Freud is said to refer to her in his diaries more than others in the family. Commentators have noted how ‘in the dream of little Annalittle Anna only hallucinates forbidden objects’. Anna finished her education at the Cottage Lyceum in Vienna in 1912.
Freud when he learned of the latter’s romantic intentions. There is an outspoken understanding between me and her that she should not consider marriage or the preliminaries before she gets two or three years older”. In 1914 she passed the test to work as a teaching apprentice at her old school, the Cottage Lyceum. From 1915 to 1917, she worked as a teaching apprentice for third, fourth, and fifth graders. After experiencing multiple episodes of illness Anna Freud resigned her teaching post in 1920. This enabled her to pursue further her growing interest in her father’s work and writings. From 1918 to 1921 and from 1924 to 1929 she was in analysis with her father.
In 1922 she presented her paper “Beating Fantasies and Daydreams” to the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society and became a member of the society. In 1923, she began her own psychoanalytical practice with children and by 1925 she was teaching at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Training Institute on the technique of child analysis. Freud’s reputation as a pioneering theoretician. After the Burlinghams moved into the same apartment block as the Freuds in 1929 she became, in effect, the children’s stepparent. Nazi Germany occupied Austria, Anna was taken to Gestapo headquarters in Vienna for questioning on the activities of the International Psychoanalytical Association. In the event she survived her interrogation ordeal and returned to the family home.
Anna started to lecture on child analysis in English. At that time in London, the field of child analysis was only being explored by Anna and Melanie Klein, Anna’s mentor. Anna’s arrival in London resulted in splitting the school of child analysis into three types: Freudian, Kleinian and a combination of the two approaches. The Kleinian approach differed from the Freudian in several methodological and theoretical techniques around infancy and object relationships. For example, the Freudian approach did not believe that children experienced superego, and their therapist should be part of their transference and significant figures.
The war gave Freud opportunity to observe the effect of deprivation of parental care on children. She set up a centre for young war victims, called “The Hampstead War Nursery”. Here the children got foster care although mothers were encouraged to visit as often as possible. The underlying idea was to give children the opportunity to form attachments by providing continuity of relationships. Freud, that took care of children who survived concentration camps. Freud naturalised as a British subject on 22 July 1946. From the 1950s until the end of her life Freud travelled regularly to the United States to lecture, to teach and to visit friends.
During the 1970s she was concerned with the problems of emotionally deprived and socially disadvantaged children, and she studied deviations and delays in development. One year after Freud’s death her collected works were published. Anna Freud was a prolific writer, contributing articles on psychoanalysis to many different publications throughout her lifetime. In it she explained how, ‘Daydreaming, which consciously may be designed to suppress masturbation, is mainly unconsciously an elaboration of the original masturbatory fantasies’. Melanie Klein was departing from the developmental schedule that Freud, and his analyst daughter, found most plausible’. For her next major work in 1936, her ‘classic monograph on ego psychology and defense mechanisms, Anna Freud drew on her own clinical experience, but relied on her father’s writings as the principal and authoritative source of her theoretical insights’.