Seven of the items relate to anxiety and seven relate to the hospital anxiety and depression scale pdf. This, it was hoped, would create a tool for the detection of anxiety and depression in people with physical health problems.
Each item on the questionnaire is scored from 0-3 and this means that a person can score between 0 and 21 for either anxiety or depression. The HADS uses a scale and therefore the data returned from the HADS is ordinal. A number of researchers have explored HADS data to establish the cut-off points for caseness of anxiety or depression. 21 for anxiety or depression. 78 and a sensitivity of 0.
79 and a sensitivity of 0. There are a large number of studies that have explored the underlying factor structure of the HADS. Many support the two-factor structure but there are others that suggest a three or four factor structure. Some argue that the tool is best used as a unidimensional measure of psychological distress.
The hospital anxiety and depression scale”. The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. This page was last edited on 1 November 2017, at 17:57. 11 multi-part questions – the Patient Health Questionnaire was developed and validated. Though less commonly used, there are also brief versions of the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 that may be useful as screening tools in some settings.
The PHQ is available in over 20 languages, available on the PHQ website. Additionally, the measures have been validated in a number of different populations internationally. Some modules are used independently, and variants have been developed based on the original items. This tool is used in a variety of different contexts, including clinical settings across the United States as well as research studies. This version of the PHQ has been shown to have good diagnostic sensitivity but poor specificity.
It is a well-validated measure, which asks whether symptoms are present and about their severity. The development of the PHQ-15 helped address three main problems in the assessment and diagnosis of somatoform disorders. Secondly, in order to attain more reliable and valid data, asseessments need to address more current rather than previous symptoms. The GAD-7 is a 7-item scale designed to assess symptoms of anxiety. Cut points of 5, 10, and 15 correspond to mild, moderate, and severe anxiety. The PHQ-8 is an eight-item scale developed specifically to screen for depression in American epidemiological populations.
The PHQ-A is a four module self-report to evaluate depression, anxiety, substance use and eating disorders in adolescent primary care patients. Cronbach’s alpha, split half, etc. Kappa for anxiety is . Multiple convenience and random samples, as well as research studies in both clinical and nonclinical samples. One study in Nigerian university students with found ranges between .
Correlation between administrations done within 48 hours was . No published studies formally checking repeatability. Two large studies with convenience and random samples used. Construct validity has not been fully established, and more substantial evidence of convergent and discriminant validity would be helpful. Validity is consistent with PRIME-MD.
No published studies formally checking validity generalization. No published studies formally checking treatment sensitivity. Covers the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder. Higher PHQ-9 scores were correlated with greater self-reported disability days, clinic visits, health-care utilization, as well as difficulties in activities and relationships. An average sensitivity of . 77 and specificity of .
The PHQ-9 has been used in studies to effectively monitor change following cognitive behavioral treatment. A meta analysis stated that the PHQ-9 had good treatment sensitivity. The PHQ-9 is brief, free to use, and easy to score. It is likely to perform best in samples where the prevalence of depressive disorders is high. To improve clinical utility, meta-analyses suggest increasing cut score to 10 or higher to improve sensitivity. Covers seven of the core symptoms for generalized anxiety disorder. Validity has been established across multiple populations.
The GAD-7 showed good sensitivity to treatment effects in two randomized-controlled trials. The GAD-7 is brief, free to use, and easy to score. It is sensitive to change following treatment. There is some evidence that elderly people may require some help to complete the scale accurately. Although the PHQ-15 is currently being used in major studies in several European countries and Australia.